I think you are asking, can you set up a dynamic Feeder into a Campaign on the Canvas that automatically adds Contacts as they meet the criteria of the Filter? If so, yes you can do this.
When you configure the Segment for your Campaign, select for "Add Segment Members" as "Continuously until campaign is disabled", like so:
Eloqua will evaluate every 15 minutes to see if new Contacts have entered the Segment (via your Filter Criteria). If you are concern about this triggering emails outside of business hours, for example, note that you can configure send times on the Email step under "Scheduling".